An aneurysm is ballooning that occurs in a weak spot of the brain’s arteries. Cerebral aneurysms might potentially burst at a fragile point, resulting in a type of intracranial hemorrhage known as subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is a severe and life-threatening medical condition. Approximately 35% of patients experiencing subarachnoid hemorrhage lose their lives. On the other hand, we are able to diagnose and endovascularly treat the majority of cerebral aneurysms before they burst and cause intracranial hemorrhage. It is essential to close the aneurysm in patients who have experienced an intracranial hemorrhage. Along with novel techniques devised within the past 20 years, endovascular treatment methods have become the primary option in treatment of aneurysms.
Carotid arteries are two of the 4 essential vessels supplying blood to the brain. The disease of atherosclerosis often impairs carotid arteries with stenosis and occlusions, which in turn prevent adequate blood from being supplied to the brain and might consequently cause palsy/stroke. Stenoses building up in carotid arteries lead to temporary ischemic attacks, which last less than 24 hours and subside on their own. Temporary ischemic attacks trigger symptoms like formication, numbing and weakness in legs and arms; speech disorder; difficulty making out words; lisping; sudden loss of vision in one eye; shifting in one half of the face and lips; and dizziness. These attacks are precursors of an impending permanent palsy attack. Medical treatment proves to be insufficient if the level of stenosis in a carotid artery is over 70 percent, in which case additional interventional treatment is required. Stenting and balloon angioplasty are reliable and effective methods in treatment of carotid stenosis.
Arteriovenous malformations (AVM)
Arteriovenous malformation is a cerebrovascular condition where multiple vessels of abnormal morphology get tangled up. AVM causes high blood flow velocity inside that gradually causes vessel walls in the tangle to weaken. Over time, one of the vessels constituting the tangle might burst and result in intracranial hemorrhage. Overall, AVM is not accompanied with any complaint in 25% of cases and is incidentally diagnosed in imaging studies like MRI, which may originally be performed for other reasons. The other 75% of the patients will experience headache, epilepsy (seizures), numbing in arms and legs, weakness and speech difficulty. Endovascular treatment (embolization), open surgery and radiosurgery are the primary treatment methods for arteriovenous malformation. AVM treatment should be carried out by taking into account numerous factors and handled by a team of neurosurgery, interventional neuroradiology and radiosurgery specialists. Some patients may require combined therapies where two or even three different techniques are practiced consecutively.
Arteriovenous fistula (AVF)
Arteriovenous fistula is a condition characterized with a direct connection that forms between an artery and vein. As a result, the high-pressure blood in an artery passes through a vein and leads to elevated venous pressure in the brain or spinal cord. The high pressure in the vein eventually tears the vein and could cause intracranial hemorrhage. In other cases where there is no intracranial hemorrhage, the high venous pressure prevents the brain and spinal cord from receiving sufficient blood, leading to complaints like weakness, speech disorder, inability to urinate and stroke. Arteriovenous fistulas of the brain and spinal cord are treated by means of endovascular methods. Some patients may require open surgery as well.